1  The three hardships suffered by the seafarer were sorrow, fear , and pain . He felt sorrow for being alone on the ship his entire life . He felt fear of death and his journeys into the unknown . Physical pain was felt from the freezing water and cold weather , while emotional pain was felt from not having a life.


2  The first speaker , being winter , wants to end his journeys on the ocean .The first speaker feels that the sea  makes him older and takes his youth from him.

The second speaker feels that the sea rejuvinates him and puts life into him. The  second speaker feels a need to go to sea .

3  Winter is used as old age , and it shows depression from old age . Spring shows  new hope and new youth.

4  The source of the idea that Grendall is a descendant of Cain stems from the Bible    wherein Cain , son of Adam and Eve  , kills his brother , Abel , thus bringing the                  wrath of God upon himself and his children.

5  Grendall wanted to eat humans , but he was possibly a bit lazy or cautious , so he would wait until the men of the mead-hall were either asleep or too drunk to really

put up any kind of fight .

6  Bonny Barbara Alan was angry at Sir John Graeme because he told her that he loved her while on his deathbed. She , therefore, had no option as to whether she wanted to marry him or not , for it could not happen.

7  The husband lost the bet when he spoke as the burglar was going to kiss his wife . Since the bet was that whoever spoke first would have to get up and bar the door , the husband had lost the bet.

8  When that Aprill with his shoures soote

The droughte of March hath perced to the roote

And bathed every veyne in swich licour

Of which virtu engendred is the flour,

9  The purpose of the pilgrimage was to visit the tomb of Thomas a Beckett , a religious hero to the people. They went to Canterbury Cathedral , as that is where Beckett was buried.

10  I can identify near any passage as said by any of the pilgrims !

11  The Knight was the best example of a truly virtuous character in the story. His squire, too seemed quite virtuous . This would be explained by the views on Chivalry exhibited by the people of Europe at that time. Knighthood was one of the greatest honors , and knight were looked upon as demi-gods.

12  The Pardoner liked to foist certain worthless items as actual Christian artifacts . He would charge money for the privilege of seeing such great items. It was what we would call a scam.

13  The host’s idea consisted of each pilgrim telling two stories to Canterbury and telling two stories on the way back. The winner of the best story would receive a meal provided by the others. Anyone who would not tell a story would have to buy food for the journey. He decided to go along as a judge and a guide.

14  The theme of the pardoners story is that greed is very bad and can kill. In a way , he is sort of saying that everything that glitters isn’t always gold. The ironic part of the story is that the three drunks want to find death to destroy it , yet what they find under the tree is gold. This gold turns into death because of greed .

15  Six of Shakespeare’s plays include> 1 Macbeth  2 Henry VIII  3 Taming of the Shrew  4 Romeo and Juliet  5  Othello  6 Hamlet

16  He introduces the three witches , sets up a relationship between them and Macbeth , and to set the battle scene up.

17  I can do that!

18  It means that whether you get what you want in a fair or a foul manner , it is yours , no matter how it was received.

19  The old thane of Cawdor was to be executed for treason.

20  Duncan is saying that he thought the thane of Cawdor was trustworthy, but he was not. Duncan decides to make another one of his trustworthy subjects than of Cawdor-Macbeth.

21  Killing someone in your home is not being a very good host. The king had just promoted Macbeth. There were no hard feeling at all between either of them . Macbeth found Duncan to be a virtuous man, and he was the king , too.

22  She did not want to murder Duncan herself because he reminded her of her father. She was not real sincere because she wanted the deed done anyway , as long as it was done by Macbeth.

23  Macbeth kills the two servants because they saw him kill the king and might have remembered the next day. He tells the others that he was consumed in a fit of rage toward the servants when he saw them there with the blood of the king on their daggers.

24 The sons of Duncan fled in fear of their own lives. Macbeth now had no competition to be king.

25  The king’s horses went wild and the owl and falcon were fighting.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         26  Banquo knew of the witches and could figure the deed was a murder and tell the others. Banquo’s sons were to become kings, so Banquo’s death would prevent the birth of any more sons to threaten Macbeth as king.

27  Macbeth had already planned the murder of Banquo , so he certainly expected him to fail the feast , which Banquo’s ghost did attend to keep his word.

28  Fleance is the son of Banquo , whose sons are to be kings , therefore Fleance is to take the throne after Macbeth.

29  The witches tell Macbeth that he shall be king until the day that the woods move , which is seemingly impossible. They also tell him that no son of woman would be able to kill him , which ,too seems to be an impossibility.

30  The murder of Lady Macduff has , in reality , no reasoning. The other two murders were done for greed and power . Macbeth could accomplish nothing by killing Lady Macduff and the children , except for angering Macduff himself , whom Macbeth was to fear.

31  Malcom tests Macduff’s loyalty to him by telling  lies about his character and ability. Malcom wants to make sure that Macduff is dedicated to ousting Macbeth and taking him as king.

32  The idea that Shakespeare is trying to get across is that Lady Macbeth is now , herself , regretting all of the foolish ideas of ambition that she helped to create in her husband . She is trying to cleanse herself of Macbeth’s other murders . She is now sorry that she had ever wanted to be queen.

33  The speaker feels despair because   1 he is all alone  2 he has no friends  3 he does not have the e other man’ s art or scope  4 he is an outcast

34  Tasted— Some books can be read , with every word taken literally.These books lack depth . Magazines usually fall into this category , especially one with lots of pictures and short , direct articles. ie. Playboy

Swallowed—- These types of books require the reader to think a bit , and suggests that the reader should remember what he has read. ie. textbooks

Chewed and Digested—– These books have to be read with the thought that there might be hidden meaning in any sentence , and the reader should be careful as to what he interprets and what the author meant.

35  Hrothgar > from Beowulf…………Caedmon >                                                                                                    Lennox , Banquo , Old Siward > Macbeth……….Grendall > from Beowulf



1  History is all of the recorded events in the past of the world .

Prehistory consists of the time in the existance of the world before man began to record the events that took place . Three contributions from prehistory are  1 the invention of fire  2 spoken languages  3 building tools and homes

3  Archeology was becoming a science at around the turn of the 20th century. The discovery of the Rosetta Stone was a very important find for the new science.

4  Cuneiuform was a form of written language used by the ancient Egyptians.

The origin of our alphabet is what the Phoenecians used.

Monotheism , or the belief in one God , was introduced by the Jews.

Family became important during the Sumerian Civilization.

An obelisk was a Roman structure that carried water down from mountains.

The Olympic Games originated in Greece, where a fit body was very important.

The Rosetta Stone from Egypt had translation of unknown languages.

A parodos is a strange and wonderful device used in Rome.

Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon who made the first written law codes.

5  The Greeks contributed the following 1 The alphabet(without vowels)  2 literature such as Oedipus Rex by Sophacles  3 philosophy by such men as Plato , Socrates , and Aristotle  4 new ideas in math  5 new ideas in science and medicine.

6  Pythagoras led innovations in math. Plato is a well known philosopher of the time. Herodotus was the father of history. Alexander the Great is the most famous Greek ruler. Homer wrote epic poetry , although he was blind. Aesop wrote his fables.

7  Even though the Romans conquered the Greeks , the great Greek works of art and literature continued to be spread , by the Romans.

8  The Romans spread Latin throughout their conquered lands. They also kept the Greek poetry and art going. Roman law was used for years to come , and Christianity was also one of the things they spread.

9  The great Roman Empire declined because…1  family values declined…2  the army was made up of too many cultures , most not loyal to Rome….3  the empire covered too much area , and the army became too small to defend it.

10  The Anglo-Saxon period ran from 449 – 1066. The year 449 signifies the time Rome was declining and England returned to tribal life. The year 1066 is the year that England was taken by William I of the Normans.

11  Four of these kigdoms were Wales , Wessex , Kent , and Northhumbria.

12  Four different Saxon leaders were Eorles , Thanes , Dukes , and Kings.

13  The Angles and Saxons were Teutonic , while the Britons and Jutes were Celtic.

14  The three vows were poverty , chastity , and obediance. Two other manastaries were the Cluny of France and the Dominicans of Spain.

15  Essentially , Harold of England was routed by William the Conqueror of Normandy , who then claimed England as his own.

16  The vassal owed his lord allegience , a part of his crops , and some work on the lord’s manor or castle.

17  The three categories remain , to this day , a heavily guarded secret.

18  Five weapons used in this time period were the bow , the crossbow , the sword , the lance , and the longbow.

19  Five passtimes include watching a joust , watching a bow tournament , listening to the jester , listening to poetry said by a minstral , and watching a good execution.

20  Midieval guilds assured producers of regulated prices and standards. They assured workers of fair wages and prices and good standards of material and workmanship.

21  Apprentices learned the trade , jouneymen practiced the trade to become good at it , and masters praticed the trade and taught apprentices the trade.

23  William Caxton introduced it to England. Morte d’Arthur was one of the first books published on it.


24  Petrarch and Boccacio were Italian writers of the Renaissance.

25  The Crusades were organized to rescue the Holy Land from the Muslims. These wars lasted about 100 years. Europe learned more about math and medicine as a result of the holy wars.

26  The English still had claims in France , and the Hundred years War was an attempt to keep those claims. The English were finally defeated , but warring in Europe was never the same after thes wars. Introduced was the longbow and gunpowder.

27  The War of the Roses was caused by two feuding Houses , or families. The opposing forces were the House of York  and the House of Lancaster. The war lasted from 1455-1485. Henry VII united the two Houses through marriage.




29  INVASIONS OF ENGLAND–55 BC..Romans  \   449…Jutes  \  787…Danes

\   1066…Normans

30  Five feudal members in the Canterbury Tales were the Knight , the Squire , the Yeoman , the Franklin , and the Miller.

31   King sheet … no problem

32   RICHARD the Lion-Heart ;  EDWARD the Confessor ;  LORENZO DE’ MEDICI ; GEOFFREY CHAUCER ; HERODOTUS –history ; HIPPOCATES –medicine ; WILLIAM the Conqueror ; SHAKESPEARE — poet



1  Narrative is a poem in story form , while lyric is a poem that expresses personal feelings.

2  Anglo-Saxon poetry was an oral art . It  was usually sung . Traditions existed in the poetry such as the heroic  and elegiac . They all had a strong beat and alliteration.

3  A kenning was a simple expression used instead of a persons name , and used during the old English period. “Flower , you are the one for me.”

4   An epic is a long narrative telling about the great deeds of a hero. The two kinds of epics are the heroic and the elegiac. Beowulf is an English epic.

5  An epic has a hero who is also a leader of his people. It contains great action and larger than life characters. The general tone , however , remains somber because of all of the evil in the world.

6  The epic declined because many more people learned to read , and educated people began to see the poetry for the fiction it was .




8   It is called fable literature ; Aesop was the originator.

9  The ballads were centered around everyday life and the themes were often tragic ones . Ballads tended to use a refrain . Incremental repetition was also used. Two ballads are Sir Patrick Spens and Bonny Barbara Allan.

10  An epic tells of glorious adventures of heroic leaders , while a ballad is more concerned with everyday people and is certainly not glorious.

11  A frame story is a story that tells many individual stories while a common relation exists between the bearers of the stories. Chaucer used this to tell multiple stories by different pilgrims.



13  It was the space occupied by the chorus in the Greek theatre . It is now where the musical instruments play at a theatre.


14  Chorus was the joint saying of a line. Dionysus was the originator of Drama. The orchestra was where the chorus sat , which I have already stated in these repititious questions! Parodos , Thespis , skene , and trilogy are all words that we were not required to find , and , I might add , are near impossible to find anyway. A tragic flaw is a flaw in the hero of a tragedy , leading to his demise.

15  The mystery , morality and miracle plays were dominant in Midieval times . They all have religious overtones.



17  Shakespeare’s repertory theatre did not have the resources of todays more advanced theatres.

18  They had to memorize lines , play to the crowd , and take in stride criticisms from the audience.

19  Elizabethan drama


To read more, a subscription is needed: Click here to subscribe